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文书写作教程第三课:文章结构

http://Tran.httpcn.com 日期:2002-12-18 来源:寄托天下


文章的结构可以有好几种。本课讨论的是最常用的结构。请在下面选择一个环节或在左边选择各种文章结构的例子和写作策略。

一、规范结构法

规范结构是最常用的也是几乎任何情况下都建议使用的结构。规范结构一般用于介绍主题和引言段的要点,在正文的每一段提供一个支持要点,在最后一段再重申文章的大意或得出结论。下面是申请者(例1)写她作为一个政治上积极分子的经历所使用的一个规范结构的例子。

第一段(引言)
起始句:"I am an activist with a commitment to fighting for progressive causes through legislation, policy, and grassroots organizing."
引进主题:虽然她积极参与了许多政治性活动,但她的主要兴趣是主张性教育和保健。
说明意图:"In this statement I will explain how I gained expertise in this field through both academic and professional work from 1988 to the present."

第二段
转折/主题句:"At [Ivy League University] I began my commitment to reproductive health."
论点和证据:在学术上她专注于生殖问题的研究,这可从她的工作得到证实:她专攻妇女研究和法律问题,她研究了堕胎法案对国民保健制度的冲击,她写了关于从法律上处理滥用怀孕药物的论文,等等。

第三段
转折/主题句:"While I was a student, I gained professional experience as a birth control counselor at the University health clinic."
论点和证据:她在课外活动中还作为顾问和计划生育教育工作者积极参与生殖健康问题的研究。

第四段
转折/主题句:"When I moved to a small desert town in the Western United States, I volunteered for a democratic congressional campaign, where I briefed the candidate on abortion rights and sexuality issues in health care reform."
论点和证据:她的第一个工作经验是作为计划生育处公共事务主任参与了保健行动。

第五段
转折/主题句:"I quickly learned that this small town was far more conservative than my university's eastern college community."
论点和证据:她根据自己对当地右翼活动分子的研究发表了文章和专栏评论,对反对她的做法的观点进行反击。

第六段
转折/主题句:"When my State Senator asked me to manage his reelection campaign, I eagerly accepted since I knew he had worked hard in support of health care and civil rights."
论点和证据:她从创作有效的政治宣传文件,管理志愿者等工作得到宝贵的教训。

第七段
转折/主题句:"I had hoped to work in the state capitol after the campaign, and I am now working for a state level health care advocacy organization which employs a lobbyist and coordinates grassroots strategy."
论点和证据:她通过研究法律法规、协助负责人等工作,在自己目前的职位上,继续专注于保健和政治。

第八段(结论)
转折/主题句:"While I believe that I have developed both academic and professional expertise in reproductive health policy, health care reform, and political organizing, I would like to acquire the skills and power to make a bigger difference."
结束语:作者重申文章要点,并且和上法学院的动机以及毕业后的目标紧紧联系起来。

例1:Activist

注意:为了教学目的,该文发表时未加修改。
I am an activist with a commitment to fighting for progressive causes through legislation, policy, and grassroots organizing. While I have participated in many varied projects from editing a sexuality education curriculum to campaigning for gay rights as a local boardmember of [the statewide gay rights organization], I am most concerned with reproductive health issues. In this statement I will explain how I gained expertise in this field through both academic and professional work from 1988 to the present. Through this work I have acquired the intellectual foundation and the concrete experience to be an effective advocate for citizens' right to sexuality education and health care.At [school] I began my commitment to reproductive health. I earned the right to design my own major in women's studies and legal issues, for which I took courses in feminism and wrote on the developing legal precedent recognizing fetal rights. During my year at [school] I studied the impact the abortion pill RU 486 might have on the National Health Service, researched the evolving debate about the drug in the European press, and presented my findings at a Women's Studies Department seminar upon my return to the U.S. In my senior thesis on the legal treatment of pregnant substance abusers, I addressed the difficulties associated with prosecuting these women and proposed alternative approaches.
While I was a student, I gained professional experience as a birth control counselor at the University health clinic. I also worked as a Planned Parenthood educator, for which I edited a sexuality education curriculum and designed and taught community programs on contraception, AIDS, puberty, and sexual abuse prevention.
When I moved to a small desert town in the Western United States, I volunteered for a democratic congressional campaign, where I briefed the candidate on abortion rights and sexuality issues in health care reform. I met the executive director of the regional Planned Parenthood, and convinced her to hire me as the agency's first Director of Public Affairs. I coordinated grassroots lobbying efforts on pending legislation including the state's health care reform bill, clinic access bill, and anti-gay rights legislation. I quickly learned that this small town was far more conservative than my university's eastern college community. Many of Planned Parenthood's efforts to promote sexuality education were thwarted. I decided to discover who opposed the agency and what their tactics were. My research uncovered a network of local activists, some of whom had connections to state and
nation-wide Conservative organizations. I attended many meetings and followed public right-wing activity such as the campaign to teach creationism in our local schools. I published my findings in an op-ed piece for our local paper, and as a front page article for a west-coast human rights newsletter. I have enclosed copies of these publications for you. When my State Senator asked me to manage his reelection campaign, I eagerly accepted since I knew he had worked hard in support of health care and civil rights. The position also offered me greater professional responsibility. Even though we lost the election, the campaign was an invaluable lesson in creating an effective political message, managing hundreds of volunteers, working in coalition with other campaigns, designing advertising, and fundraising.
I had hoped to work in the state capitol after the campaign, and I am now working for a state level health care advocacy organization which employs a lobbyist and coordinates grassroots strategy. In my new position I am researching legislation, helping the director design lobbying strategies, and keeping affiliated organizations throughout the state informed about evolving policy and bills.
While I believe that I have developed both academic and professional expertise in reproductive health policy, health care reform, and political organizing, I would like to acquire the skills and power to make a bigger difference. Law school would provide me with the technical skills and professional influence to be more effective in confronting right-wing litigation and initiatives and in designing and advocating for progressive social policy. After law school, I envision working for a non-profit organization such as the ACLU Reproductive Freedom Project, or working in government drafting and analyzing reproductive health policy and legislation.

二、问题分析法

在写个人声明的文章时并不是人人都选择传统的规范结构。有些作者愿意把文章的重点放在对某一个问题或论点的分析上,就象例2作者那样。她写了关于拉丁美洲的发展的影响,更具体地说,是对工厂女工的影响。注意她的结构是如何突出她必须做到的几个最关键的方面:1)她把问题个性化;2)她明确地提出论点并用具体的实证支持其论点;3)她讨论了问题的两面;4)她说明自己如何在现实生活中积极地促进该问题的解决;5)(最重要的一点)她把对问题的分析和自己上法学院的动机联系起来。

第一段(引言)
起始句:"After college I served for two and a half years in Honduras w


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