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新托福作文准备(一)

http://Tran.httpcn.com 日期:2005-10-6 来源: 【无忧雅思网】


(一)新托福考试作文部分概述

新托福考试显然更加注重考生的英语“输出”能力——新版的考试中不仅增加了口语测试部分,写作部分也更加重视考生的整合能力测试。新托福考试的作文部分将包括两个部分,历时50分钟。

第一部分与原来的TWE考试形式相同,依然要求考生30分钟内完成——只不过这次ETS明确要求字数不得低于300词。根据目前ETS发布的样题来看,新托福的作文题库不会发生太大的变化——ETS也许会对题目的措辞做出一些改变,然而对已有的话题是很难做出本质性改变的。所以,目前的TWE官方题库依然是考生应对新托福考试中作文的第一部分的最重要参考资料 。

而第二部分远比目前的TWE考试形式复杂。考生可能会遇到以下两种情况之一:要么1) Listening/Writing,即,考生要先听一篇文章;或2) Reading/Writing,即,考生要先读一篇文章。之后,考生须按照题目要求在20分钟内写150-225字的文章。新托福的特殊考试形式要求考生具备高度的听说读写综合能力才可能获得理想的成绩。

(二)新托福作文计分方式

新托福考试的作文评分依然采用人工评卷方式。每个部分最高分为5分,最低分为1分。每份考卷的两个部分各分别由两名阅卷者进行评分(只给整数分数),而后取平均值。最后这个平均值要转换为Scale Score,如下表格所示。按照ETS的统计,写作部分最终Scale Score为22分~24分对考生来讲已经比较理想——考生的百分比级别已经在80%左右;而最终Scale Score为26分以上就是非常优秀了——这时,考生的百分比级别已经超过90%。

Writing Rubric Mean

Scaled Score

5.00

30

4.75

29

4.50

28

4.25

27

4.00

25

3.75

24

3.50

22

3.25

21

3.00

20

2.75

18

2.50

17

2.25

15

2.00

14

1.75

12

1.50

11

1.25

10

1.00

8

(三)新托福作文评分标准

(I) Independent Writing Task Scoring Guide

5 An essay at this level
· effectively addresses the topic and task
· is well organized and well developed, using clearly appropriate explanation, exemplification, and/or details
· displays unity, progression, and coherence
· displays consistent facility in the use of language, demonstrating syntactic variety, appropriate word choice, and idiomaticity, though it may have minor lexical or grammatical errors

4 An essay at this level
· addresses the topic and task well enough, some points may not be fully elaborated
· is generally well organized and well developed, using appropriate and sufficient explanation, exemplification, and/or details
· displays unity, progression, and coherence, though it may contain occasional redundancy, digression, or unclear connection
· displays facility in the use of language, demonstrating syntactic variety and range of vocabulary, though it will probably have may have occasional noticeable minor errors in structure or word form or idiomatic language use that do not interfere with meaning

3 An essay at this level
· addresses the topic and task using somewhat developed explanation, exemplification, and/or details
· displays unity, progression, and coherence, though connection of ideas may be occasionally obscured
· may demonstrate inconsistent facility in sentence formation and word choice that may result in lack of clarity and occasionally obscure meaning
· may display accurate but limited range of syntactic structures and vocabulary

2 An essay at this level
· limited development in response to the topic and task
· inadequate organization or connection of ideas
· inappropriate or insufficient exemplification, explanation, or details to support or illustrate generalizations in response to the task
· a noticeably inappropriate choice of word or word forms
· an accumulation of errors in sentence structure and/or usage

1 An essay at this level
· serious disorganization or underdevelopment
· little or no detail, or irrelevant specifics, or questionable responsiveness to the task
· serious and frequent errors in sentence structure or usage

(II) Reading/Writing Task Scoring Guidelines

5 A response at this level has all of the following qualities:
· principle ideas presented accurately with ample and accurately connected key supporting points/elaboration as required to fulfill the task effectively
· organization effective in response to the task
· sentence formation and word forms accurate and appropriate; response may have occasional minor grammatical or lexical errors
· appropriate use of own language and language from source text

4 A response at this level has all of the following qualities:
· principle ideas presented accurately as required by the task, though one or two key supporting points/details/elaboration may be omitted, misrepresented, or somewhat unclear, inexplicit, or inexplicitly connected
· organization generally effective in response to the task
· sentence formation and word choice generally accurate and appropriate; response may have noticeable minor errors and some imprecision and/or unidiomatic language use and/or imprecise connection among ideas; however these do not obscure meaning
· generally appropriate use of own language and language from source text

3 A response at this level is marked by inconsistency
· principle ideas inconsistently presented: some are discussed accurately with key supporting points/elaboration; other support/elaboration may be absent, incorrect or unclear/obscured by weaknesses in language; or
· inconsistent facility in sentence formation and word choice present (meaning may be unclear and may be occasionally obscured); or
· efforts at paraphrasing may result in a number of sentence and word form errors, but meaning is not usually obscured, or there are efforts at paraphrasing, but they do not move sufficiently away form exact wording and/or structures in the source text; or
· inconsistent facility in expressing connections between and among ideas (connections exist but are not effective)

2 A response at this level is marked by flaws in presentation of information or language
· significantly incomplete, inaccurate, or unclear presentation of principal ideas and key supporting points, or
· consistent lack of facility in sentence formation, word choice, word forms and/or connection between and among ideas; or
· efforts at paraphrase usually unsuccessful or very limited attempts at paraphrase

1 A response at this level exhibits one or more major flaws
· little or no comprehensible presentation of principal ideas and key supporting points required by the task
· failure to connect points to the required task
· pervasive language errors that make it difficult for the reader to derive meaning
· text too brief or too borrowed to allow for judgment of writing proficiency

(III) Listening/Writing Task Scoring Guidelines

5 A response at this level
· amply and accurately discusses the key points required by the task
· is well organized
· displays accurate and appropriate sentence formation and word choice; the response may have occasional minor grammatical or lexical errors

4 A response at this level
· accurately discusses the key points required by the task, though some key points may not be fully elaborated; the response may have occasional minor inaccuracies or distortion of information or may occasionally exhibit lack of clarity
· is generally well organized
· displays generally accurate and appropriate sentence formation and word choice; the response may have noticeable minor errors and some imprecision and/or unidiomatic language use and/or imprecise connections among ideas; however these do not obscure meaning

3 A response at this level is marked by inconsistency in
· completeness, accuracy, and/or clarity in presentation of key points; or
· facility in expressing connections between and among ideas (connections exist but are not effective); or
· facility in sentence formation and word choice (meaning may be unclear and may be occasionally obscured)

2 A response at this level is marked by flaws in presentation of information or language
· significantly incomplete, inaccurate, or unclear presentation of key points, or
· consistent lack of facility in sentence formation, connection, and/or word choice, or

1 A response at this level exhibits one or more major flaws
· little or no comprehensible presentation of key points
· failure to connect points to the required task
· pervasive language errors that make it difficult for the reader to derive meaning
· too brief to allow for judgment of writing proficiency


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